 The Sundial Primer created by Carl Sabanski  The Sundial Primer Index "Sunny Day U" Index  Make a Horizontal Sundial - Graphical Method 2

Horizontal Sundial: the common or garden sundial with a horizontal dial plate and polar-pointing gnomon.

Here is another graphical method that you can use to draw a horizontal sundial. Using this method it easier to obtain hour lines that are earlier than 7 a.m. and later than 5 p.m.. A number of steps are similar to the first graphical method presented and are combined. Step 1

• Draw a horizontal line.

• Draw a vertical line that passes through the horizontal line at O.

• Select a point C on the vertical line. This point will be the centre of your horizontal sundial and eventually all the hour lines will radiate from it.

• Draw the line CD at an angle equal to the latitude (LAT) from OC.

• Draw the line OB from O and perpendicular to line CD. The line OB is the radius of the equatorial sundial you will be drawing next. Step 2

• Place your compass point at O and draw an arc from B until it crosses the vertical line at E. This is the centre of your equatorial sundial.

• Place your compass point at E and draw a circle starting at O. Notice that OE=OB=R. You have now drawn the face of your equatorial sundial. Step 3

• Draw the equatorial sundial hour lines spaced at 15° in both directions but do not go beyond 9 a.m. and 3 p.m..

• If you want smaller time intervals add more lines. Remember that 15°=60 minutes so 7.5°=30 minutes, 1°=4 minutes. You can figure out the rest.

• Extend all the lines to the horizontal line.

• From C, the centre of the horizontal sundial, draw a line to each of the points on the horizontal line. You have now transferred the hour lines from the equatorial sundial to the horizontal sundial.

• Draw the line JK from the 9 a.m. point and LM from the 3 p.m. point. These lines are parallel to line OC.

• Draw the line OM. This line is parallel to the 9 a.m. hour line. The distance VO is equal to the distance VM. This line intersect the 1 p.m. line at point W and the 2 p.m. line at point X. Step 4

• Place you compass at point V.

• Draw an arc at point Y where the distance VY is equal to VX. Draw a line from point C through point Y and continue to the line LM. You now have the 4 p.m. hour line.

• Draw an arc at point Z where the distance VZ is equal to VW. Draw a line from point C through point Z and continue to the line LM. You now have the 5 p.m. hour line.

• These steps can be repeated for any additional hour lines you may want to draw that will indicate time internals of less than an hour. Step 5

• Steps 3 and 4 can be repeated to draw the morning hour lines. The line OK is drawn, which is parallel to the 3 p.m. hour line, and the hour lines determined as above.

• Another way is to use your compass to set the distance from point M to the 5 p.m. point on line LM. Move the compass to point K and mark this distance on line JK. This is the point for 7 a.m. Repeat this process for 4 p.m. to determine 8 a.m. Step 6

• The remaining steps are the same as described in the first graphical method presented.

This is a very compact method of drawing a horizontal sundial and it is very easy to draw, for example, the 6:15 a.m. hour line.

Happy Dialling!